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"You can't tell the players without a scorecard!" - Scorecard Vendors
These pages are a step-by-step walk through that will teach you how to score a game. Begin with the basics, move into the diagrams and see the examples at the end to get an overall picture on scoring your own games. Then, pick up a scorecard and try it yourself. I assure you, once you learn how to score a game you will not stop!
In Alphabetical Order
Section Page Title
How To Score A Game The Basics
The form appears complex but once examined makes perfect sense.
Innings run across the top. Spaces for the player name along the side. There are extra spaces for pinch hitters and extra spaces for an extra inning game. Each grid, where the inning and player name meet, has a small diamond that represents the actual playing field. Spaces on the right side of the sheet are used for tracking the players final statistics at the end of the game.
You begin by filling in the players name using the team line-up. Use a second page to place the visiting team's line-up on a card. When each player comes to bat in an inning you fill in the small diamond with the appropriate code and actions taken.
Knowing The Player Numbers
There may be many different methods of scoring and many different types of scorecards but there is only one player numbering system. You have probably heard the play-by-play announcer on television or radio call a play "6 to 4 to 3" then mention what a great infield and double play combination your favorite team has. He is using the following chart to describe the play and you should memorize this chart and be able to recall it as easy as you can recall your favorite players vitals.
BB Base on Balls
CS Caught Stealing
DP Double Play
DH Designated Hitter
FC Fielder's Choice
HBP Hit By Pitch
HR Home Run
IW Intentional Walk
PB Passed Ball
SB Stolen Base
SF Sacrifice Fly
SH Sacrifice Hit
WP Wild Pitch
Seeing is believing and this section was meant to actually show you some sample boxes so you can see how they were scored for a single specific event. The previous section illustrated the numerous abbreviations used on a score card and this is the method in which you would actually put the batters actions onto paper.
These are just a few of the basics often seen in similar formats on most every scorekeeper's card. Many variations exist but after a few moments of comparison you should be able to figure out a fellow scorekeeper's system, doing this may also teach you a new way of doing something better and add to the overall enjoyment you are sure to receive from scoring a game.
Scoring A Single
Scoring A Double
Scoring A Triple
Scoring A Home Run
Scoring A Base On Balls
Scoring A Strikeout
Scoring A Called Strikeout
Scoring A Stolen Base
Scoring A Sacrifice
Scoring A Hit By Pitch
Scoring A Fielder's Choice
Scoring An Error - Shortstop
Scoring Interference - Catcher
Comprehensive Abbreviation List
In Alphabetical Order
BB Base on Balls
BS Blown Save
CG Complete Game
CS Caught Stealing
DP Double Play
DH Designated Hitter
Et Error on Throw
FC Fielder's Choice
FP Fielding Percentage
GA Games Ahead
GB Games Behind
GIDP Grounded into Double Play
GS Games Started
HB Hit by Ball
HBP Hit By Pitch
HR Home Run
IBB Intentional Base on Balls
IF Infield Fly
IP Innings Pitched
IW Intentional Walk
Kc Strikeout - Called
Ks Strikeout - Swinging
L Left or Losses
LD Line Drive
LOB Left on Base
LP Losing Pitcher
NP Number of Pitches Thrown
OS Out Stealing
PB Passed Ball
PH Pinch Hit
PR Pinch Runner
RBI Runs Batted In
RS Runner(s) Stranded
S or SH Sacrifice Hit
SB Stolen Base
SF Sacrifice Fly
TB Total Bases
TP Triple Play
U Unassisted Putout
WP Wild Pitch
10.00 The Official Scorer.
10.01 (a) The league president shall appoint an official scorer for each league championship game. The official scorer shall observe the game from a position in the press box. The scorer shall have sole authority to make all decisions involving judgment, such as whether a batter's advance to first base is the result of a hit or an error. He shall communicate such decisions to the press box and broadcasting booths by hand signals or over the press box loud speaker system, and shall advise the public address announcer of such decisions if requested. The Official Scorer must make all decisions concerning judgment calls within twenty four (24) hours after a game has been officially concluded. No judgment decision shall be changed thereafter except, upon immediate application to the League President, the scorer may request a change, citing the reasons for such. In all cases, the official scorer is not permitted to make a scoring decision which is in conflict with the scoring rules. After each game, including forfeited and called games, the scorer shall prepare a report, on a form prescribed by the league president, listing the date of the game, where it was played, the names of the competing clubs and the umpires, the full score of the game, and all records of individual players compiled according to the system specified in these Official Scoring Rules. He shall forward this report to the league office within thirty six hours after the game ends. He shall forward the report of any suspended game within thirty six hours after the game has been completed, or after it becomes an official game because it cannot be completed, as provided by the Official Playing Rules.
(b) (1) To achieve uniformity in keeping the records of championship games, the scorer shall conform strictly to the Official Scoring Rules. The scorer shall have authority to rule on any point not specifically covered in these rules.
(2) If the teams change sides before three men are put out, the scorer shall immediately inform the umpire of the mistake.
(3) If the game is protested or suspended, the scorer shall make a note of the exact situation at the time of the protest or suspension, including the score, the number of outs, the position of any runners, and the ball and strike count on the batter.
NOTE: It is important that a suspended game resume with exactly the same situation as existed at the time of suspension. If a protested game is ordered replayed from the point of protest, it must be resumed with exactly the situation that existed just before the protested play.
(4) The scorer shall not make any decision conflicting with the Official Playing Rules, or with an umpire's decision.
(5) The scorer shall not call the attention of the umpire or of any member of either team to the fact that a player is batting out of turn.
(c) (1) The scorer is an official representative of the league, and is entitled to the respect and dignity of his office, and shall be accorded full protection by the league president. The scorer shall report to the president any indignity expressed by any manager, player, club employee or club officer in the course of, or as the result of, the discharge of his duties.
10.02 The official score report prescribed by the league president shall make provisions for entering the information listed below, in a form convenient for the compilation of permanent statistical records:
(a) The following records for each batter and runner:
(1) Number of times he batted, except that no time at bat shall be charged against a player when
(i) He hits a sacrifice bunt or sacrifice fly
(ii) He is awarded first base on four called balls
(iii) He is hit by a pitched ball
(iv) He is awarded first base because of interference or obstruction.
(2) Number of runs scored
(3) Number of safe hits
(4) Number of runs batted in
(5) Two base hits
(6) Three base hits
(7) Home runs
(8) Total bases on safe hits
(9) Stolen bases
(10) Sacrifice bunts
(11) Sacrifice flies
(12) Total number of bases on balls
(13) Separate listing of any intentional bases on balls
(14) Number of times hit by a pitched ball
(15) Number of times awarded first base for interference or obstruction.
(b) The following records for each fielder:
(1) Number of putouts
(2) Number of assists
(3) Number of errors
(4) Number of double plays participated in
(5) Number of triple plays participated in
(c) The following records for each pitcher:
(1) Number of innings pitched.
NOTE: In computing innings pitched, count each putout as one third of an inning. If a starting pitcher is replaced with one out in the sixth inning, credit that pitcher with 5 1/3 innings. If a starting pitcher is replaced with none out in the sixth inning, credit that pitcher with 5 innings, and make the notation that he faced ___ batters in the sixth. If a relief pitcher retires two batters and is replaced, credit that pitcher with 2/3 inning pitched.
(2) Total number of batters faced
(3) Number of batters officially at bat against pitcher computed according to 10.02 (a) (1).
(4) Number of hits allowed
(5) Number of runs allowed
(6) Number of earned runs allowed
(7) Number of home runs allowed
(8) Number of sacrifice hits allowed
(9) Number of sacrifice flies allowed
(10) Total number of bases on balls allowed
(11) Separate listing of any intentional bases on balls allowed
(12) Number of batters hit by pitched balls
(13) Number of strikeouts
(14) Number of wild pitches
(15) Number of balks
(d) The following additional data:
(1) Name of the winning pitcher
(2) Name of the losing pitcher
(3) Names of the starting pitcher and the finishing pitcher for each team.
(4) Name of pitcher credited with save.
(e) Number of passed balls allowed by each catcher.
(f) Name of players participating in double plays and triple plays.
EXAMPLE: Double Plays_Jones, Roberts and Smith (2). Triple Play_Jones and Smith.
(g) Number of runners left on base by each team. This total shall include all runners who get on base by any means and who do not score and are not put out. Include in this total a batter runner whose batted ball results in another runner being retired for the third out.
(h) Names of batters who hit home runs with bases full.
(i) Names of batters who ground into force double plays and reverse force double plays.
(j) Names of runners caught stealing.
(k) Number of outs when winning run scored, if game is won in last half inning.
(l) The score by innings for each team.
(m) Names of umpires, listed in this order
(1) plate umpire,
(2) first base umpire,
(3) second base umpire,
(4) third base umpire.
(n) Time required to play the game, with delays for weather or light failure deducted.
10.03 (a) In compiling the official score report, the official scorer shall list each player's name and his fielding position or positions in the order in which the player batted, or would have batted if the game ends before he gets to bat.
NOTE: When a player does not exchange positions with another fielder but is merely placed in a different spot for a particular batter, do not list this as a new position.
EXAMPLES: (1) Second baseman goes to the outfield to form a four man outfield.
(2) Third baseman moves to a position between shortstop and second baseman.
(b) Any player who enters the game as a substitute batter or substitute runner, whether or not he continues in the game thereafter, shall be identified in the batting order by a special symbol which shall refer to a separate record of substitute batters and runners. Lower case letters are recommended as symbols for substitute batters, and numerals as symbols for substitute runners. The record of substitute batters shall describe what the substitute batter did.
EXAMPLES - "a - Singled for ___ in third inning; b - Flied out for ___ in sixth inning; c - Forced ___ for ___ in seventh inning; d - Grounded out for ___ in ninth inning; 1 - Ran for ___ in ninth inning. The record of substitute batters and runners shall include the name of any such substitute whose name is announced, but who is removed for a second substitute before he actually gets into the game. Such substitution shall be recorded as "e Announced as substitute for ___ in seventh inning." Any such second substitute shall be recorded as batting or running for the first announced substitute.
HOW TO PROVE A BOX SCORE
(c) A box score is in balance (or proved) when the total of the team's times at bat, bases on balls received, hit batters, sacrifice bunts, sacrifice flies and batters awarded first base because of interference or obstruction equals the total of that team's runs, players left on base and the opposing team's putouts.
WHEN PLAYER BATS OUT OF TURN
(d) When a player bats out of turn, and is put out, and the proper batter is called out before the ball is pitched to the next batter, charge the proper batter with a time at bat and score the putout and any assists the same as if the correct batting order had been followed. If an improper batter becomes a runner and the proper batter is called out for having missed his turn at bat, charge the proper batter with a time at bat, credit the putout to the catcher, and ignore everything entering into the improper batter's safe arrival on base. If more than one batter bats out of turn in succession score all plays just as they occur, skipping the turn at bat of the player or players who first missed batting in the proper order.
CALLED AND FORFEITED GAMES
(e) (1) If a regulation game is called, include the record of all individual and team actions up to the moment the game ends, as defined in Rules 4.10 and 4.11. If it is a tie game, do not enter a winning or losing pitcher.
(2) If a regulation game is forfeited, include the record of all individual and team actions up to the time of forfeit. If the winning team by forfeit is ahead at the time of forfeit, enter as winning and losing pitchers the players who would have qualified if the game had been called at the time of forfeit. If the winning team by forfeit is behind or if the score is tied at the time of forfeit, do not enter a winning or losing pitcher. If a game is forfeited before it becomes a regulation game, include no records. Report only the fact of the forfeit.
RUNS BATTED IN
10.04 (a) Credit the batter with a run batted in for every run which reaches home base because of the batter's safe hit, sacrifice bunt, sacrifice fly, infield out or fielder's choice; or which is forced over the plate by reason of the batter becoming a runner with the bases full (on a base on balls, or an award of first base for being touched by a pitched ball, or for interference or obstruction).
(1) Credit a run batted in for the run scored by the batter who hits a home run. Credit a run batted in for each runner who is on base when the home run is hit and who scores ahead of the batter who hits the home run.
(2) Credit a run batted in for the run scored when, before two are out, an error is made on a play on which a runner from third base ordinarily would score.
(b) Do not credit a run batted in when the batter grounds into a force double play or a reverse force double play.
(c) Do not credit a run batted in when a fielder is charged with an error because he muffs a throw at first base which would have completed a force double play.
(d) Scorer's judgment must determine whether a run batted in shall be credited for a run which scores when a fielder holds the ball, or throws to a wrong base. Ordinarily, if the runner keeps going, credit a run batted in; if the runner stops and takes off again when he notices the misplay, credit the run as scored on a fielder's choice.
10.05 A base hit shall be scored in the following cases:
(a) When a batter reaches first base (or any succeeding base) safely on a fair ball which settles on the ground or touches a fence before being touched by a fielder, or which clears a fence;
(b) When a batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball hit with such force, or so slowly, that any fielder attempting to make a play with it has no opportunity to do so;
NOTE: A hit shall be scored if the fielder attempting to handle the ball cannot make a play, even if such fielder deflects the ball from or cuts off another fielder who could have put out a runner.
(c) When a batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball which takes an unnatural bounce so that a fielder cannot handle it with ordinary effort, or which touches the pitcher's plate or any base, (including home plate), before being touched by a fielder and bounces so that a fielder cannot handle it with ordinary effort;
(d) When a batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball which has not been touched by a fielder and which is in fair territory when it reaches the outfield unless in the scorer's judgment it could have been handled with ordinary effort;
(e) When a fair ball which has not been touched by a fielder touches a runner or an umpire.
EXCEPTION: Do not score a hit when a runner is called out for having been touched by an Infield Fly;
(f) When a fielder unsuccessfully attempts to put out a preceding runner, and in the scorer's judgment the batter runner would not have been put out at first base by ordinary effort.
NOTE: In applying the above rules, always give the batter the benefit of the doubt. A safe course to follow is to score a hit when exceptionally good fielding of a ball fails to result in a putout.
10.06 A base hit shall not be scored in the following cases:
(a) When a runner is forced out by a batted ball, or would have been forced out except for a fielding error;
(b) When the batter apparently hits safely and a runner who is forced to advance by reason of the batter becoming a runner fails to touch the first base to which he is advancing and is called out on appeal. Charge the batter with a time at bat but no hit;
(c) When the pitcher, the catcher or any infielder handles a batted ball and puts out a preceding runner who is attempting to advance one base or to return to his original base, or would have put out such runner with ordinary effort except for a fielding error. Charge the batter with a time at bat but no hit;
(d) When a fielder fails in an attempt to put out a preceding runner, and in the scorer's judgment the batter runner could have been put out at first base.
NOTE: This shall not apply if the fielder merely looks toward or feints toward another base before attempting to make the putout at first base;
(e) When a runner is called out for interference with a fielder attempting to field a batted ball, unless in the scorer's judgment the batter runner would have been safe had the interference not occurred.
DETERMINING VALUE OF BASE HITS
10.07 Whether a safe hit shall be scored as one base hit, two base hit, three base hit or home run when no error or putout results shall be determined as follows:
(a) Subject to the provisions of 10.07 (b) and (c), it is a one base hit if the batter stops at first base; it is a two base hit if the batter stops at second base; it a three base hit if the batter stops at third base; it is a home run if the batter touches all bases and scores.
(b) When, with one or more runners on base, the batter advances more than one base on a safe hit and the defensive team makes an attempt to put out a preceding runner, the scorer shall determine whether the batter made a legitimate two base hit or three base hit, or whether he advanced beyond first base on the fielder's choice.
NOTE: Do not credit the batter with a three base hit when a preceding runner is put out at the plate, or would have been out but for an error. Do not credit the batter with a two base hit when a preceding runner trying to advance from first base is put out at third base, or would have been out but for an error. However, with the exception of the above, do not determine the value of base hits by the number of bases advanced by a preceding runner. A batter may deserve a two base hit even though a preceding runner advances one or no bases; he may deserve only a one base hit even though he reaches second base and a preceding runner advances two bases.
EXAMPLES: (1) Runner on first, batter hits to right fielder, who throws to third base in unsuccessful attempt to put out runner. Batter takes second base. Credit batter with one base hit.
(2) Runner on second. Batter hits fair fly ball. Runner holds up to determine if ball is caught, and advances only to third base, while batter takes second. Credit batter with two base hit.
(3) Runner on third. Batter hits high fair fly. Runner takes lead, then runs back to tag up, thinking ball will be caught. Ball falls safe, but runner cannot score, although batter has reached second. Credit batter with two base hit.
(c) When the batter attempts to make a two base hit or a three base hit by sliding, he must hold the last base to which he advances. If he overslides and is tagged out before getting back to the base safely, he shall be credited with only as many bases as he attained safely. If he overslides second base and is tagged out, he shall be credited with a one base hit; if he overslides third base and is tagged out, he shall be credited with a two base hit.
NOTE: If the batter overruns second or third base and is tagged out trying to return, he shall be credited with the last base he touched. If he runs past second base after reaching that base on his feet, attempts to return and is tagged out, he shall be credited with a two base hit. If he runs past third base after reaching that base on his feet, attempts to return and is tagged out, he shall be credited with a three base hit.
(d) When the batter, after making a safe hit, is called out for having failed to touch a base, the last base he reached safely shall determine if he shall be credited with a one base hit, a two base hit or a three base hit. If he is called out after missing home base, he shall be credited with a three base hit. If he is called out for missing third base, he shall be credited with a two base hit. If he is called out for missing second base, he shall be credited with a one base hit. If he is called out for missing first base, he shall be charged with a time at bat, but no hit.
(e) When the batter runner is awarded two bases, three bases or a home run under the provisions of Playing Rules 7.05 or 7.06 (a), he shall be credited with a two base hit, a three base hit or a home run, as the case may be.
GAME ENDING HITS
(f) Subject to the provisions of 10.07 (g), when the batter ends a game with a safe hit which drives in as many runs as are necessary to put his team in the lead, he shall be credited with only as many bases on his hit as are advanced by the runner who scores the winning run, and then only if the batter runs out his hit for as many bases as are advanced by the runner who scores the winning run.
NOTE: Apply this rule even when the batter is theoretically entitled to more bases because of being awarded an "automatic" extra base hit under various provisions of Playing Rules 6.09 and 7.05.
(g) When the batter ends a game with a home run hit out of the playing field, he and any runners on base are entitled to score.
10.08 A stolen base shall be credited to a runner whenever he advances one base unaided by a hit, a putout, an error, a force out, a fielder's choice, a passed ball, a wild pitch or a balk, subject to the following:
(a) When a runner starts for the next base before the pitcher delivers the ball and the pitch results in what ordinarily is scored a wild pitch or passed ball, credit the runner with a stolen base and do not charge the misplay.
EXCEPTION: If, as a result of the misplay, the stealing runner advances an extra base, or another runner also advances, score the wild pitch or passed ball as well as the stolen base.
(b) When a runner is attempting to steal, and the catcher, after receiving the pitch, makes a wild throw trying to prevent the stolen base, credit a stolen base. Do not charge an error unless the wild throw permits the stealing runner to advance one or more extra bases, or permits another runner to advance, in which case credit the stolen base and charge one error to the catcher.
(c) When a runner, attempting to steal, or after being picked off base, evades being put out in a run down play and advances to the next base without the aid of an error, credit the runner with a stolen base. If another runner also advances on the play, credit both runners with stolen bases. If a runner advances while another runner, attempting to steal, evades being put out in a run down play and returns safely, without the aid of an error, to the base he originally occupied, credit a stolen base to the runner who advances.
(d) When a double or triple steal is attempted and one runner is thrown out before reaching and holding the base he is attempting to steal, no other runner shall be credited with a stolen base.
(e) When a runner is tagged out after oversliding a base, while attempting either to return to that base or to advance to the next base, he shall not be credited with a stolen base.
(f) When in the scorer's judgment a runner attempting to steal is safe because of a muffed throw, do not credit a stolen base. Credit an assist to the fielder who made the throw; charge an error to the fielder who muffed the throw, and charge the runner with "caught stealing."
(g) No stolen base shall be scored when a runner advances solely because of the defensive team's indifference to his advance. Score as a fielder's choice.
(h) A runner shall be charged as "Caught Stealing" if he is put out, or would have been put out by errorless play when he
(1) Tries to steal.
(2) Is picked off a base and tries to advance (any move toward the next base shall be considered an attempt to advance).
(3) Overslides while stealing.
NOTE: In those instances where a pitched ball eludes the catcher and the runner is put out trying to advance, no caught stealing shall be charged. No caught stealing should be charged when a runner is awarded a base due to obstruction.
10.09 (a) Score a sacrifice bunt when, before two are out, the batter advances one or more runners with a bunt and is put out at first base, or would have been put out except for a fielding error.
(b) Score a sacrifice bunt when, before two are out, the fielders handle a bunted ball without error in an unsuccessful attempt to put out a preceding runner advancing one base.
EXCEPTION: When an attempt to turn a bunt into a putout of a preceding runner fails, and in the scorer's judgment perfect play would not have put out the batter at first base, the batter shall be credited with a one base hit and not a sacrifice.
(c) Do not score a sacrifice bunt when any runner is put out attempting to advance one base on a bunt. Charge the batter with a time at bat.
(d) Do not score a sacrifice bunt when, in the judgment of the scorer, the batter is bunting primarily for a base hit and not for the purpose of advancing a runner or runners. Charge the batter with a time at bat.
NOTE: In applying the above rule, always give the batter the benefit of the doubt.
(e) Score a sacrifice fly when, before two are out, the batter hits a fly ball or a line drive handled by an outfielder or an infielder running in the outfield which
(1) is caught, and a runner scores after the catch, or
(2) is dropped, and a runner scores, if in the scorer's judgment the runner could have scored after the catch had the fly been caught.
NOTE: Score a sacrifice fly in accordance with 10.09 (e) (2) even though another runner is forced out by reason of the batter becoming a runner.
10.10 A putout shall be credited to each fielder who
(1) catches a fly ball or a line drive, whether fair or foul;
(2) catches a thrown ball which puts out a batter or runner, or
(3) tags a runner when the runner is off the base to which he legally is entitled.
(a) Automatic putouts shall be credited to the catcher as follows:
(1) When the batter is called out for an illegally batted ball;
(2) When the batter is called out for bunting foul for his third strike; (Note exception in 10.17 (a) (4)).
(3) When the batter is called out for being touched by his own batted ball;
(4) When the batter is called out for interfering with the catcher.
(5) When the batter is called out for failing to bat in his proper turn; (See 10.03 (d)).
(6) When the batter is called out for refusing to touch first base after receiving a base on balls;
(7) When a runner is called out for refusing to advance from third base to home with the winning run.
(b) Other automatic putouts shall be credited as follows (Credit no assists on these plays except as specified):
(1) When the batter is called out on an Infield Fly which is not caught, credit the putout to the fielder who the scorer believes could have made the catch;
(2) When a runner is called out for being touched by a fair ball (including an Infield Fly), credit the putout to the fielder nearest the ball;
(3) When a runner is called out for running out of line to avoid being tagged, credit the putout to the fielder whom the runner avoided;
(4) When a runner is called out for passing another runner, credit the putout to the fielder nearest the point of passing;
(5) When a runner is called out for running the bases in reverse order, credit the putout to the fielder covering the base he left in starting his reverse run;
(6) When a runner is called out for having interfered with a fielder, credit the putout to the fielder with whom the runner interfered, unless the fielder was in the act of throwing the ball when the interference occurred, in which case credit the putout to the fielder for whom the throw was intended, and credit an assist to the fielder whose throw was interfered with;
(7) When the batter runner is called out because of interference by a preceding runner, as provided in Playing Rule 6.05 (m), credit the putout to the first baseman. If the fielder interfered with was in the act of throwing the ball, credit him with an assist, but credit only one assist on any one play under the provisions of 10.10 (b) (6) and (7).
10.11 An assist shall be credited to each fielder who throws or deflects a batted or thrown ball in such a way that a putout results, or would have resulted except for a subsequent error by any fielder. Only one assist and no more shall be credited to each fielder who throws or deflects the ball in a run down play which results in a putout, or would have resulted in a putout, except for a subsequent error.
NOTE: Mere ineffective contact with the ball shall not be considered an assist. "Deflect" shall mean to slow down or change the direction of the ball and thereby effectively assist in putting out a batter or runner.
(a) Credit an assist to each fielder who throws or deflects the ball during a play which results in a runner being called out for interference, or for running out of line.
(b) Do not credit an assist to the pitcher on a strikeout.
EXCEPTION: Credit an assist if the pitcher fields an uncaught third strike and makes a throw which results in a putout.
(c) Do not credit an assist to the pitcher when, as the result of a legal pitch received by the catcher, a runner is put out, as when the catcher picks a runner off base, throws out a runner trying to steal, or tags a runner trying to score.
(d) Do not credit an assist to a fielder whose wild throw permits a runner to advance, even though the runner subsequently is put out as a result of continuous play. A play which follows a misplay (whether or not it is an error) is a new play, and the fielder making any misplay shall not be credited with an assist unless he takes part in the new play.
DOUBLE PLAYS - TRIPLE PLAYS
10.12 Credit participation in the double play or triple play to each fielder who earns a putout or an assist when two or three players are put out between the time a pitch is delivered and the time the ball next becomes dead or is next in possession of the pitcher in pitching position, unless an error or misplay intervenes between putouts.
NOTE: Credit the double play or triple play also if an appeal play after the ball is in possession of the pitcher results in an additional putout.
10.13 An error shall be charged for each misplay (fumble, muff or wild throw) which prolongs the time at bat of a batter or which prolongs the life of a runner, or which permits a runner to advance one or more bases.
NOTE (1) Slow handling of the ball which does not involve mechanical misplay shall not be construed as an error.
NOTE (2) It is not necessary that the fielder touch the ball to be charged with an error. If a ground ball goes through a fielder's legs or a pop fly falls untouched and in the scorer's judgment the fielder could have handled the ball with ordinary effort, an error shall be charged.
NOTE (3) Mental mistakes or misjudgments are not to be scored as errors unless specifically covered in the rules.
(a) An error shall be charged against any fielder when he muffs a foul fly, to prolong the time at bat of a batter whether the batter subsequently reaches first base or is put out.
(b) An error shall be charged against any fielder when he catches a thrown ball or a ground ball in time to put out the batter runner and fails to tag first base or the batter runner.
(c) An error shall be charged against any fielder when he catches a thrown ball or a ground ball in time to put out any runner on a force play and fails to tag the base or the runner.
(d) (1) An error shall be charged against any fielder whose wild throw permits a runner to reach a base safely, when in the scorer's judgment a good throw would have put out the runner.
EXCEPTION: No error shall be charged under this section if the wild throw is made attempting to prevent a stolen base.
(2) An error shall be charged against any fielder whose wild throw in attempting to prevent a runner's advance permits that runner or any other runner to advance one or more bases beyond the base he would have reached had the throw not been wild.
(3) An error shall be charged against any fielder whose throw takes an unnatural bounce, or touches a base or the pitcher's plate, or touches a runner, a fielder or an umpire, thereby permitting any runner to advance.
NOTE: Apply this rule even when it appears to be an injustice to a fielder whose throw was accurate. Every base advanced by a runner must be accounted for.
(4) Charge only one error on any wild throw, regardless of the number of bases advanced by one or more runners.
(e) An error shall be charged against any fielder whose failure to stop, or try to stop, an accurately thrown ball permits a runner to advance, providing there was occasion for the throw. If such throw be made to second base, the scorer shall determine whether it was the duty of the second baseman or the shortstop to stop the ball, and an error shall be charged to the negligent player.
NOTE: If in the scorer's judgment there was no occasion for the throw, an error shall be charged to the fielder who threw the ball.
(f) When an umpire awards the batter or any runner or runners one or more bases because of interference or obstruction, charge the fielder who committed the interference or obstruction with one error, no matter how many bases the batter, or runner or runners, may be advanced.
NOTE: Do not charge an error if obstruction does not change the play in the opinion of the scorer.
10.14 No error shall be charged in the following cases:
(a) No error shall be charged against the catcher when after receiving the pitch, he makes a wild throw attempting to prevent a stolen base, unless the wild throw permits the stealing runner to advance one or more extra bases, or permits any other runner to advance one or more bases.
(b) No error shall be charged against any fielder who makes a wild throw if in the scorer's judgment the runner would not have been put out with ordinary effort by a good throw, unless such wild throw permits any runner to advance beyond the base he would have reached had the throw not been wild.
(c) No error shall be charged against any fielder when he makes a wild throw in attempting to complete a double play or triple play, unless such wild throw enables any runner to advance beyond the base he would have reached had the throw not been wild.
NOTE: When a fielder muffs a thrown ball which, if held, would have completed a double play or triple play, charge an error to the fielder who drops the ball and credit an assist to the fielder who made the throw.
(d) No error shall be charged against any fielder when, after fumbling a ground ball or dropping a fly ball, a line drive or a thrown ball, he recovers the ball in time to force out a runner at any base.
(e) No error shall be charged against any fielder who permits a foul fly to fall safe with a runner on third base before two are out, if in the scorer's judgment the fielder deliberately refuses the catch in order that the runner on third shall not score after the catch.
(f) Because the pitcher and catcher handle the ball much more than other fielders, certain misplays on pitched balls are defined in Rule 10.15 as wild pitches and passed balls. No error shall be charged when a wild pitch or passed ball is scored.
(1) No error shall be charged when the batter is awarded first base on four called balls or because he was touched by a pitched ball, or when he reaches first base as the result of a wild pitch or passed ball.
(i) When the third strike is a wild pitch, permitting the batter to reach first base, score a strikeout and a wild pitch.
(ii) When the third strike is a passed ball, permitting the batter to reach first base, score a strikeout and a passed ball.
(2) No error shall be charged when a runner or runners advance as the result of a passed ball, a wild pitch or a balk.
(i) When the fourth called ball is a wild pitch or a passed ball, and as a result
(a) the batter runner advances to a base beyond first base;
(b) any runner forced to advance by the base on balls advances more than one base, or
(c) any runner, not forced to advance, advances one or more bases, score the base on balls, and also the wild pitch or passed ball, as the case may be;
(ii) When the catcher recovers the ball after a wild pitch or passed ball on the third strike, and throws out the batter runner at first base, or tags out the batter runner, but another runner or runners advance, score the strikeout, the putout and assists, if any, and credit the advance of the other runner or runners as having been made on the play.
WILD PITCHES - PASSED BALLS
10.15 (a) A wild pitch shall be charged when a legally delivered ball is so high, or so wide, or so low that the catcher does not stop and control the ball by ordinary effort, thereby permitting a runner or runners to advance.
(1) A wild pitch shall be charged when a legally delivered ball touches the ground before reaching home plate and is not handled by the catcher, permitting a runner or runners to advance.
(b) A catcher shall be charged with a passed ball when he fails to hold or to control a legally pitched ball which should have been held or controlled with ordinary effort, thereby permitting a runner or runners to advance.
BASES ON BALLS
10.16 (a) A base on balls shall be scored whenever a batter is awarded first base because of four balls having been pitched outside the strike zone, but when the fourth such ball touches the batter it shall be scored as a "hit batter." (See 10.18 (h) for procedure when more than one pitcher is involved in giving a base on balls: Also see 10.17 (b) relative to substitute batter who receives base on balls.)
(b) Intentional base on balls shall be scored when the pitcher makes no attempt to throw the last pitch to the batter into the strike zone but purposely throws the ball wide to the catcher outside the catcher's box.
(1) If a batter awarded a base on balls is called out for refusing to advance to first base, do not credit the base on balls. Charge a time at bat.
10.17 (a) A strikeout shall be scored whenever:
(1) A batter is put out by a third strike caught by the catcher;
(2) A batter is put out by a third strike not caught when there is a runner on first before two are out;
(3) A batter becomes a runner because a third strike is not caught;
(4) A batter bunts foul on third strike.
EXCEPTION: If such bunt on third strike results in a foul fly caught by any fielder, do not score a strikeout. Credit the fielder who catches such foul fly with a putout.
(b) When the batter leaves the game with two strikes against him, and the substitute batter completes a strikeout, charge the strikeout and the time at bat to the first batter. If the substitute batter completes the turn at bat in any other manner, including a base on balls, score the action as having been that of the substitute batter.
10.18 An earned run is a run for which the pitcher is held accountable. In determining earned runs, the inning should be reconstructed without the errors (which include catcher's interference) and passed balls, and the benefit of the doubt should always be given to the pitcher in determining which bases would have been reached by errorless play. For the purpose of determining earned runs, an intentional base on balls, regardless of the circumstances, shall be construed in exactly the same manner as any other base on balls.
(a) An earned run shall be charged every time a runner reaches home base by the aid of safe hits, sacrifice bunts, a sacrifice fly, stolen bases, putouts, fielder's choices, bases on balls, hit batters, balks or wild pitches (including a wild pitch on third strike which permits a batter to reach first base) before fielding chances have been offered to put out the offensive team. For the purpose of this rule, a defensive interference penalty shall be construed as a fielding chance.
(1) A wild pitch is solely the pitcher's fault, and contributes to an earned run just as a base on balls or a balk.
(b) No run shall be earned when scored by a runner who reaches first base
(1) on a hit or otherwise after his time at bat is prolonged by a muffed foul fly;
(2) because of interference or obstruction or
(3) because of any fielding error.
(c) No run shall be earned when scored by a runner whose life is prolonged by an error, if such runner would have been put out by errorless play.
(d) No run shall be earned when the runner's advance is aided by an error, a passed ball, or defensive interference or obstruction, if the scorer judges that the run would not have scored without the aid of such misplay.
(e) An error by a pitcher is treated exactly the same as an error by any other fielder in computing earned runs.
(f) Whenever a fielding error occurs, the pitcher shall be given the benefit of the doubt in determining to which bases any runners would have advanced had the fielding of the defensive team been errorless.
(g) When pitchers are changed during an inning, the relief pitcher shall not be charged with any run (earned or unearned) scored by a runner who was on base at the time he entered the game, nor for runs scored by any runner who reaches base on a fielder's choice which puts out a runner left on base by the preceding pitcher.
NOTE: It is the intent of this rule to charge each pitcher with the number of runners he put on base, rather than with the individual runners. When a pitcher puts runners on base, and is relieved, he shall be charged with all runs subsequently scored up to and including the number of runners he left on base when he left the game, unless such runners are put out without action by the batter, i.e., caught stealing, picked off base, or called out for interference when a batter runner does not reach first base on the play.
EXCEPTION: see example 7.
EXAMPLES: (1) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. B grounds out, sending A to second. C flies out. D singles, scoring A. Charge run to P1.
(2) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. B forces A at second. C grounds out, sending B to second. D singles, scoring B. Charge run to P1.
(3) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. B singles, sending A to third. C grounds to short, and A is out at home, B going to second. D flies out. E singles, scoring B. Charge run to P1.
(4) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. B walks. C flies out. A is picked off second. D doubles, scoring B from first. Charge run to P2.
(5) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. P2 walks B and is relieved by P3. C forces A at third. D forces B at third. E hits home run, scoring three runs. Charge one run to P1; one run to P2, one run to P3.
(6) P1 walks A, and is relieved by P2, P2 walks B. C singles, filling the bases. D forces A at home. E singles, scoring B and C. Charge one run to P1 and one run to P2.
(7) P1 walks A, and is relieved by P2. P2 allows B to single, but A is out trying for third. B takes second on the throw. C singles, scoring B. Charge run to P2.
(h) A relief pitcher shall not be held accountable when the first batter to whom he pitches reaches first base on four called balls if such batter has a decided advantage in the ball and strike count when pitchers are changed.
(1) If, when pitchers are changed, the count is
2 balls, no strike,
2 balls, 1 strike,
3 balls, no strike,
3 balls, 1 strike,
3 balls, 2 strikes,
and the batter gets a base on balls, charge that batter and the base on balls to the preceding pitcher, not to the relief pitcher.
(2) Any other action by such batter, such as reaching base on a hit, an error, a fielder's choice, a force out, or being touched by a pitched ball, shall cause such a batter to be charged to the relief pitcher.
NOTE: The provisions of 10.18 (h) (2) shall not be construed as affecting or conflicting with the provisions of 10.18 (g).
(3) If, when pitchers are changed, the count is
2 balls, 2 strikes,
1 ball, 2 strikes,
1 ball, 1 strike,
1 ball, no strike,
no ball, 2 strikes,
no ball, 1 strike,
charge that batter and his actions to the relief pitcher.
(i) When pitchers are changed during an inning, the relief pitcher shall not have the benefit of previous chances for outs not accepted in determining earned runs.
NOTE: It is the intent of this rule to charge relief pitchers with earned runs for which they are solely responsible. In some instances, runs charged as earned against the relief pitcher can be charged as unearned against the team.
EXAMPLES: (1) With two out, P1 walks A. B reaches base on an error. P2 relieves P1. C hits home run, scoring three runs. Charge two unearned runs to P1, one earned run to P2.
(2) With two out, P1 walks A and B and is relieved by P2. C reaches base on an error. D hits home run, scoring four runs. Charge two unearned runs to P1, two unearned runs to P2.
(3) With none out, P1 walks A. B reaches base on an error. P2 relieves P1. C hits home run, scoring three runs. D and E strike out. F reaches base on an error. G hits home run, scoring two runs. Charge two runs, one earned, to P1. Charge three runs, one earned, to P2.
WINNING AND LOSING PITCHER
10.19 (a) Credit the starting pitcher with a game won only if he has pitched at least five complete innings and his team not only is in the lead when he is replaced but remains in the lead the remainder of the game.
(b) The "must pitch five complete innings" rule in respect to the starting pitcher shall be in effect for all games of six or more innings. In a five inning game, credit the starting pitcher with a game won if he has pitched at least four complete innings and his team not only is in the lead when he is replaced but remains in the lead the remainder of the game.
(c) When the starting pitcher cannot be credited with the victory because of the provisions of 10.19 (a) or (b) and more than one relief pitcher is used, the victory shall be awarded on the following basis:
(1) When, during the tenure of the starting pitcher, the winning team assumes the lead and maintains it to the finish of the game, credit the victory to the relief pitcher judged by the scorer to have been the most effective;
(2) Whenever the score is tied the game becomes a new contest insofar as the winning and losing pitcher is concerned;
(3) Once the opposing team assumes the lead all pitchers who have pitched up to that point are excluded from being credited with the victory except that if the pitcher against whose pitching the opposing team gained the lead continues to pitch until his team regains the lead, which it holds to the finish of the game, that pitcher shall be the winning pitcher;
(4) The winning relief pitcher shall be the one who is the pitcher of record when his team assumes the lead and maintains it to the finish of the game.
EXCEPTION: Do not credit a victory to a relief pitcher who is ineffective in a brief appearance, when a succeeding relief pitcher pitches effectively in helping his team maintain the lead. In such cases, credit the succeeding relief pitcher with the victory.
(d) When a pitcher is removed for a substitute batter or substitute runner, all runs scored by his team during the inning in which he is removed shall be credited to his benefit in determining the pitcher of record when his team assumes the lead.
(e) Regardless of how many innings the first pitcher has pitched, he shall be charged with the loss of the game if he is replaced when his team is behind in the score, or falls behind because of runs charged to him after he is replaced, and his team thereafter fails either to tie the score or gain the lead.
(f) No pitcher shall be credited with pitching a shutout unless he pitches the complete game, or unless he enters the game with none out before the opposing team has scored in the first inning, puts out the side without a run scoring and pitches all the rest of the game. When two or more pitchers combine to pitch a shutout a notation to that effect should be included in the league's official pitching records.
(g) In some non championship games (such as the Major League All Star Game) it is provided in advance that each pitcher shall work a stated number of innings, usually two or three. In such games, it is customary to credit the victory to the pitcher of record, whether starter or reliever, when the winning team takes a lead which it maintains to the end of the game, unless such pitcher is knocked out after the winning team has a commanding lead, and the scorer believes a subsequent pitcher is entitled to credit for the victory.
SAVES FOR RELIEF PITCHERS
10.20 Credit a pitcher with a save when he meets all three of the following conditions:
(1) He is the finishing pitcher in a game won by his club; and
(2) He is not the winning pitcher; and
(3) He qualifies under one of the following conditions:
(a) He enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and pitches for at least one inning; or
(b) He enters the game, regardless of the count, with the potential tying run either on base, or at bat, or on deck (that is, the potential tying run is either already on base or is one of the first two batsmen he faces); or
(c) He pitches effectively for at least three innings. No more than one save may be credited in each game.
10.21 The league president shall appoint an official statistician. The statistician shall maintain an accumulative record of all the batting, fielding, running and pitching records specified in 10.02 for every player who appears in a league championship game. The statistician shall prepare a tabulated report at the end of the season, including all individual and team records for every championship game, and shall submit this report to the league president. This report shall identify each player by his first name and surname, and shall indicate as to each batter whether he bats righthanded, lefthanded or both ways; as to each fielder and pitcher, whether he throws righthanded or lefthanded. When a player listed in the starting lineup for the visiting club is substituted for before he plays defensively, he shall not receive credit in the defensive statistics (fielding), unless he actually plays that position during a game. All such players, however, shall be credited with one game played (in "batting statistics") as long as they are announced into the game or listed on the official lineup card. Any games played to break a divisional tie shall be included in the statistics for that championship season.
DETERMINING PERCENTAGE RECORDS
SCOREKEEPING RULES CHANGES FOR 2007
Changes adopted for the 2007 Scorekeeping Rules (located in the publication “What’s the Score?”) are noted in red. The text below in red will be added as Rule 10.22 …
PITCH COUNT (BASEBALL ONLY)
10.22 –Each pitch delivered to a batter shall be counted. (Exception: A pitch declared “no pitch” will not be charged to that pitcher.)
(a) The official scorekeeper’s record of the pitch count shall be the official record. In the absence of an official scorekeeper, the record of the person designated by the local league (or tournament director) to count pitches will be the official record.
(b) The pitches may be counted by a person other than the scorekeeper, but the total pitches for each pitcher must be entered in the scorebook, or in a locally-produced register for this purpose. The scorebook or register will be used to determine the pitching eligibility in a subsequent game or games.
(c) When requested by the manager, the scorekeeper and any other official(s) involved in tallying the pitch count must provide current information on the pitch count for a pitcher currently in the game.
(d) The scorekeeper and any other official(s) involved in tallying the pitch count must inform the umpire-in-chief and manager when the maximum number of pitches has been delivered by a particular pitcher, pursuant to the pitcher’s league age. (See Regulation VI.) However, the failure by such officials to notify the umpire-in-chief and manager does not relieve the manager of the responsibility to remove a pitcher when the limit is reached as required in Regulation VI.
10.22 To compute
(a) Percentage of games won and lost, divide the number of games won by the total games won and lost;
(b) Batting average, divide the total number of safe hits (not the total bases on hits) by the total times at bat, as defined in 10.02 (a);
(c) Slugging percentage, divide the total bases of all safe hits by the total times at bat, as defined in 10.02 (a);
(d) Fielding average, divide the total putouts and assists by the total of putouts, assists and errors;
(e) Pitcher's earned run average, multiply the total earned runs charged against his pitching by 9, and divide the result by the total number of innings he pitched.
NOTE: Earned run average shall be calculated on the basis of total innings pitched including fractional innings.
EXAMPLE: 9 1/3 innings pitched and 3 earned runs is an earned run average of 2.89 (3 ER times 9 divided by 9 1/3 equals 2.89).
(f) On base percentage, divide the total of hits, all bases on balls, and hit by pitch by the total of at bats, all bases on balls, hit by pitch and sacrifice flies.
NOTE: For the purpose of computing on base percentage, ignore being awarded first base on interference or obstruction.
MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL CHAMPIONSHIPS
10.23 To assure uniformity in establishing the batting, pitching and fielding championships of professional leagues, such champions shall meet the following minimum performance standards:
(a) The individual batting champion or slugging champion shall be the player with the highest batting average or slugging percentage, provided he is credited with as many or more total appearances at the plate in League Championship games as the number of games scheduled for each club in his league that season, multiplied by 3.1 in the case of a major league player.
EXCEPTION: However, if there is any player with fewer than the required number of plate appearances whose average would be the highest, if he were charged with the required number of plate appearances or official at bats, then that player shall be awarded the batting championship or slugging championship.
EXAMPLE: If a major league schedules 162 games for each club, 502 plate appearances qualify (162 times 3.1 equals 502). If a National Association league schedules 140 games for each club, 378 plate appearances qualify (140 times 2.7 equals 378). Total appearances at the plate shall include official times at bat, plus bases on balls, times hit by pitcher, sacrifice hits, sacrifice flies and times awarded first base because of interference or obstruction.
(b) The individual pitching champion shall be the pitcher with the lowest earned run average, provided that he has pitched at least as many innings as the number of games scheduled for each club in his league that season.
EXCEPTION: However, pitchers in National Association leagues shall qualify for the pitching championship by having the lowest earned run average and having pitched at least as many innings as 80% of the number of games scheduled for each club in his league that season.
(c) The individual fielding champions shall be the fielders with the highest fielding average at each position, provided:
(1) A catcher must have participated as a catcher in at least one half the number of games scheduled for each club in his league that season;
(2) An infielder or outfielder must have participated at his position in at least two thirds of the number of games scheduled for each club in his league that season;
(3) A pitcher must have pitched at least as many innings as the number of games scheduled for each club in his league that season.
EXCEPTION: If another pitcher has a fielding average as high or higher, and has handled more total chances in a lesser number of innings, he shall be the fielding champion.
GUIDELINES FOR CUMULATIVE PERFORMANCE RECORDS
10.24 CONSECUTIVE HITTING STREAKS.
(a) A consecutive hitting streak shall not be terminated if the plate appearance results in a base on balls, hit batsman, defensive interference or a sacrifice bunt. A sacrifice fly shall terminate the streak.
(b) CONSECUTIVE GAME HITTING STREAKS. A consecutive game hitting streak shall not be terminated if all the player's plate appearances (one or more) result in a base on balls, hit batsman, defensive interference or a sacrifice bunt. The streak shall terminate if the player has a sacrifice fly and no hit. The player's individual consecutive game hitting streak shall be determined by the consecutive games in which the player appears and is not determined by his club's games.
(c) CONSECUTIVE PLAYING STREAK. A consecutive game playing streak shall be extended if the player plays one half inning on defense, or if he completes a time at bat by reaching base or being put out. A pinch running appearance only shall not extend the streak. If a player is ejected from a game by an umpire before he can comply with the requirements of this rule, his streak shall continue.
(d) SUSPENDED GAMES. For the purpose of this rule, all performances in the completion of a suspended game shall be considered as occurring on the original date of the game.
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